Communism is a form of government most often associated with the ideas of Karl Marx, a German philosopher who expounded his ideas for a Utopian society in The communist Manifestwritten in 1848. Marx believed that capitalism, with its emphasis on profit and private property, has led to inequality among citizens. Thus, his goal was to encourage a system that promoted a classless society in which everyone shared the benefits of labor and the state government controlled all property and wealth. No one would strive to rise above others, and people would no longer be driven by greed. So, Communism close the gap between rich and poor, end the exploitation workers and free the poor from oppression.
The basic ideas of Communism was not born with Marx, however. Plato and Aristotle discussed them in ancient times, but Marx developed them into a doctrine, which was later propelled into practice. Marx’s ideal society ensured economic equality and equity. Marx believed that private property fostered greed, and he blamed capitalism for social issues. The problems, he said, stemmed from the industrial crisis Revolution. The rise of factories, reliance on machinery, and the ability to mass produce created conditions that fostered oppression and encouraged the development of a proletariat or working class.
Simply put, in a capitalist system, the factories fueled the economy and a few rich people owned the factories. This created the need for a large number of people to work for the factory owners. In this environment, the few wealthy exploited workers, who had to work to live. Thus, Marx sketched out his plan to liberate the proletariat, or to free it from the burden of labor. His idea of Utopia was a land where people worked as best they could, and everyone shared the wealth.
If the government controlled the economy and the people surrendered their property to the state, no group of people could rise above another. Marx describes this ideal in his Manifestbut the practice of Communism far from ideal. For much of the 20th century, about a third of the world’s population lived in communist countries, countries ruled by dictatorial rulers who controlled the lives of everyone else. Communist rulers set wages, they set prices, and they distributed wealth. Western capitalist nations fought hard against Communism, and eventually, most communist countries collapsed. by Marx Utopia has never been achieved, because it was necessary revolution on a overall scale, which never materialized. However, as of 2020, five proclaimed communist countries continue to exist: North Korea, Vietnam, China, Cuba, and Laos.