Society problems

#Reviewing: Africa and the Global Society: Marginality, Conditionality and Conjecture


[1] Stephen Wright, “Africa and the Global Society: Marginality, Conditionality, and Conjecture,” in Sola Akinrinade and Amadu Sesay, eds., Africa in the Post-Cold War International System (London; Washington: Pinter, 1998), 133.

[2] Wright, 137.

[3] Wright, 140.

[4] Wright, 140-141. “The social costs of SAPs have been excessive. High unemployment, less social protection in terms of education and healthcare facilities, a shrinking middle class across the continent as devaluation undermined purchasing power.

[5] Gilbert M. Khadiagala. Euro-African relations in the age of maturity. Africa in World Politics: Reforming the Political Order (Westview Press, 2009), 307.

[6] Khadiagala, 308.

[7] Khadiagala, 309. “This is not a generous offer as the EU is offering to eliminate tariffs on the remaining 3% of ACP imports, and in return they demand that Africa eliminate 80% of its tariffs on EU imports. The risk and negative impacts will be much greater for Africa. Increased competition from heavily subsidized EU agricultural products such as maize, milk, tomatoes and meat could mean the loss of national and regional markets for millions of African smallholder farmers. And the loss of markets means the loss of livelihoods, which in Africa often results in the loss of human lives.

[8] Khadiagala, 317. “Bilateral agreements, especially between Spain and West African countries, have failed to stop the flow of African migrants to Europe. Similarly, the EU hastily created FRONTEX, a border patrol force to operate in the Mediterranean, but helicopter patrols and surveillance units off the coasts of Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde and Gambia have been ineffective. The influx of illegal immigrants into Europe has also caused clashes between EU members, as illustrated by the EU summit on migration issues in Tampere, Finland, in September 2006. All these talks, Spain has asked for help to deal with the influx of African migrants, repeatedly declaring that it is unable to cope with the influx: “These people coming from the African continent are knocking on the gateway to the whole of the European Union – we happen to be the closest border country to the African continent”. , President Ricardo Melchior of the Canary Islands threatened “to send these people arriving by small boats to Madrid and Brussels so that they can understand the gravity of the situation”.

[9]Wright, 139.

[10] Wright, 143.

[11] Eki Yemisi Omorogbe. “Can the African Union ensure peace and security? Journal of Conflict and Security Law (Oxford University Press, February 26, 2011), 62.

[12] PSC report. “Rwanda and SADC are taking the high road, but should they have invited the African Union to make the trip? » 20AUG2021.

[13] Wright, 142.

[14] Gorm Rye Olsen. The ambiguity of American foreign policy towards Africa (Third World Quarterly, 31 MARCH 2017), 2107. Other major initiatives include Feed the Future (FTF), the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI), The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), the US International Development Finance Corporation (DFC) , Power Africa, Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI), Prosper Africa and Women’s Global Development and Prosperity (W-GDP). See the following CRS report for more information: Congressional Research Service. “Sub-Saharan Africa: Key Issues and U.S. Engagement,” February 17, 2021.

[15] Olsen. The ambiguity of American foreign policy towards, 2098. In the case of Sudan, AC Budabin notes that “the combination of elite advocacy and mass mobilization has earned the Safe Darfur Coalition enviable access to Congress, the White House, and the Department of American State”.

[16] Matthew Oliver. “Russia/Africa: Wagner, an investigation into Putin’s mercenaries”, July 28, 2021. The report stresses that thanks to Russia’s security relationship with the CAR government, via Valery Zakharov, Wagner was in full control of the government; Wagner is currently thought to operate in at least eight African countries in the same way.

[17] Wright, 144.

[18] Olsen, 2101.

[19] Wright, 137.

[20] Christopher Alessi and Beina Xu. “China in Africa” 2. “…a 10% annual growth rate for three decades to 2010 requires substantial levels of energy to maintain momentum. It has become the world’s largest energy consumer and producer…China became a net importer in 1993 and has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest oil importer in recent years.

[21] Alessi and Xu. “China in Africa”, 4.

[22] CSIS Brief, “Personal Ties: Measuring Chinese and American Engagement with African Security Chiefs”, Center for Strategic and International StudiesAugust 4, 2021,

[23] AlJazeera. “Chinese Xi promises 1 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccine to Africa”, November 29, 2021. billion-covid-19-doses-of-vaccine-for-africa.

[24] Mohana Basu. “China to seize Uganda’s Entebbe airport after default? Virus report officially denied. The footprintNovember 28, 2021.

[25] Emily Crane and Samuel Chamberlain. “China may be planning its first military base on the Atlantic Ocean: report”, New York Post, Also: China-Lusophone Memory. “Equatorial Guinea in China’s ‘arms'”, June 5, 2019.

[26] Olsen, 2101.

[27] Wright, 136.

[28] Michele Barbero. “France bids farewell to its military mission in West Africa”, July 7, 2021. .

[29] Alessi and Xu. “China in Africa”, 7.

[30] Wright, 144.

[31] Gyimah-Boadi and Joseph Asunka. “Do Africans want democracy – and do they think they are getting it?” Afrobarometer, November 2, 2021.”

[32] Wright, 142.

[33] Emma Ashford. “Great power competition is a recipe for disaster”, 01APR2021.